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nginx结合openssl实现https的方法

9彩网开发网 https://gingimenez.com 2021-07-26 16:14 出处:网络 作者: 七月七日清
在未使用SSL证书对服务器数据进行加密认证的情况下,用户的数据将会以明文的形式进行传输,这样一来使用抓包工具是可以获取到用户密码信息的,非常危险。而且也无法验证数据一致性和完整性,不能确保数据在传输过...

在未使用SSL证书对服务器数据进行加密认证的情况下,用户的数据将会以明文的形式进行传输,这样一来使用抓包工具是可以获取到用户密码信息的,非常危险。而且也无法验证数据一致性和完整性,不能确保数据在传输过程中没被改变。所以网站如果有涉及用户账户等重要信息的情况下通常要配置使用SSL证书,实现https协议。

在生产环境中的SSL证书都需要通过第三方认证机构购买,分为专业版OV证书(浏览器地址栏上不显示企业名称)和高级版EV(可以显示企业名称)证书,证书所保护的域名数不同也会影响价格(比如只对www认证和通配*认证,价格是不一样的),且不支持三级域名。测试中可以自己作为证书颁发机构来制作证书,浏览器会显示为红色,代表证书过期或者无效,如果是黄色的话代表网站有部分连接使用的仍然是http协议。

不管使用哪种方法,在拿到证书后对Nginx的配置都是一样的,所以这里以搭建OpenSSL并制作证书来进行完整说明

一、准备环境

1)nginx服务

2)ssl模块

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl stop firewallbQjzogFfPbd
[[email protected] ~]# iptables -F
[[email protected] ~]# setenforce 0
[[email protected] ~]# yum -y install pcre zlib pcre-devel zlib-devel
[[email protected] ~]# tar xf nginx-1.16.0.tar.gz -C /usr/src/
[[email protected] ~]#cd /usr/src/nginx-1.16.0
[[email protected] ~]#./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nginx --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_gzip_static_module&&make && make install #后续需要的模块一次性安装

3)检测openssl是否安装

[[email protected] ~]# rpm -qa openssl 2 openssl-1.0.1e-42.el7.x86_64

若没有安装

[[email protected] ~]# yum -y install openssl openssl-devel

二、创建根证书CA

1、生成CA私钥

[[email protected] ~]# cd zhengshu/
[[email protected] zhengshu]# openssl genrsa -out local.key 2048
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................+++
............................................................................................................................................................................................+++
e is 65537 (0x10001)
[[email protected] zhengshu]# ls
local.key

 2、生成CA证书请求

[[email protected] zhengshu]# openssl req -new -key local.key -out local.csr
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave s编程客栈ome blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:CN  #国家
State or Province Name (full name) []:BJ   #省份
Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:BJ  #城市
Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:test   #部门
Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:test   #主机名
Email Address []:[email protected]  #邮箱

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:wuminyan  #密码
An optional company name []:wuminyan  #姓名
[[email protected] zhengshu]# ls
local.csr  local.key
req: 这是一个大命令,提供生成证书请求文件,验证证书,和创建根CA
 -new: 表示新生成一个证书请求
 -x509: 直接输出证书
 -key: 生成证书请求时用到的私钥文件
 -out:输出文件

3、生成CA根证书

这个生成CA证书的命令会让人迷惑
1.通过秘钥 生成证书请求文件
2.通过证书请求文件 生成最终的证书
 -in 使用证书请求文件生成证书,-signkey 指定私钥,这是一个还没搞懂的参数
[[email protected] zhengshu]# openssl x509 -req -in local.csr -extensions v3_ca -signkey local.key -out local.crt
Signature ok
subject=/C=CN/ST=BJ/L=BJ/O=Default Company [email protected]
Getting Private key

三、根据CA证书创建server端证书

1、生成server私匙

[[email protected] zhengshu]# openssl genrsa -out my_server.key 2048
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
.................................+++
.........................................+++
e is 65537 (0x10001)
[[email protected] zhengshu]# ls
local.crt  local.csr  local.key  my_server.key

2、生成server证书请求

[[email protected] zhengshu]# openssl x509 -req -in local.csr -extensions v3_ca -signkey local.key -out local.crt
Signature ok
subject=/C=CN/ST=BJ/L=BJ/O=Default Company [email protected]
Getting Private key
[[email protected] zhengshu]# openssl genrsa -out my_server.key 2048
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
.................................+++
.........................................+++
e is 65537 (0x10001)
[[email protected] zhengshu]# openssl req -new -key my_server.key -out my_server.csr
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fielhttps://www.cppcns.comds there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:CN
State or Province Name (full name) []:BJ
Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:BJ
Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:test
Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:test
Email Address []:[email protected]

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:wuminyan
An optional company name []:wuminyan
[[email protected] zhengshu]# ls
local.crt  local.csr  local.key  my_server.csr  my_server.key

3、生成server证书

[[email protected] zhengshu]# openssl x509 -days 365 -req -in my_server.csr -extensions v3_req -CAkey local.key -CA local.crt -Chttps://www.cppcns.comAcreateserial -out my_server.crt
 Signature ok
 subject=/C=CN/ST=BJ/L=BJ/O=Default Company [email protected]
 Getting CA Private Key

四、配置nginx支持SSL

[[email protected] ~]# vim /etc/nginx.cof      #这里设置了一个软连接:lln -s /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx /usr/local/sbin/
server {
        listen 80;
        listen       443 default  ssl;  #监听433端口
                keepalive_timeout 100;  #开启keepalive 激活keepalive长连接,减少客户端请求次数

  www.cppcns.com                 ssl_certificate      /root/zhengshu/local.crt;   #server端证书位置
                   ssl_certificate_key  /root/zhengshu/local.key;   #server端私钥位置

                        ssl_session_cache    shared:SSL:10m;         #缓存session会话
                        ssl_session_timeout  10m;                    # session会话    10分钟过期

                   ssl_ciphers  HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
                   ssl_prefer_server_ciphers  on;

        server_name   test.com;
        charset utf-8;

        location / {
            root   html;
            index  index.html index.htm;
        }

    }
}

五、测试

输入https://192.168.200.115

nginx结合openssl实现https的方法

nginx结合openssl实现https的方法

nginx结合openssl实现https的方法

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